Turbulence at bow shock

Figure on the right shows the formation of turbulence at the bow shock as seen by the global hybrid-Vlasov simulation code VlasiatorThe figure shows a zoomed in cut from the full simulation, where zooming has been done on the quasi-parallel part of the shock where the strongest turbulent fluctuations are observed. The simulation describes the Earth’s foreshock in a five-dimensional simulation box, where the ordinary space spans the ecliptic plane, while the velocity space embedded in the ordinary space is three-dimensional. The full simulation box extends from -10 Re to +50 Re in X, and +-50 Re in Y. The ordinary space resolution in this run was set to 227 km (of the order of the ion skin depth), while the velocity space resolution is 30 km/s. Color-scaling depicts density, solar wind flows from the right-hand-side-of the simulation box, while the interplanetary magnetic field forms a 30 degree angle with respect of the Sun-Earth line. The waves in the lower part are the foreshock waves due to solar wind ion reflection at the bow shock surface. Very strong turbulence is also forming within the shock itself and can be observed at high temporal and spatial resolution in the full resolution simulation.